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Fat Loss





            As the developed world as a whole gets fatter each year, certain athletes, (bodybuilders in particular), endeavour to obtain all-time lows in bodyfat percentages.  Supplemental dietary techniques have been developed by these athletes almost to a level of a science and some of the major ‘secrets’ have been revealed in this section.




Scientific Name:                      Methylxanthine

Type of Nutrient:                      Stimulant drug of Central Nervous System

History:                                     Used for hundreds of years in form of tea and coffee beverages

How Supplied:                         Powder, Tablet, Liquid, Suppository

Natural Sources:                     Tea, Coffee, Guarana, Kola Nut

Used for:                                 Reducing bodyfat and perception of effort.  Increasing workload capacity, muscle fibre recruitment, exercise intensity, endurance, alertness, concentration, and oxygen uptake, Glycogen sparing

Cost effectiveness:                * * * * *

Safety:                                     Up to 600mg/day (7 cups of coffee) considered safe (Gilbert 1992)

Precautions:                          Should not be taken by pregnant women (has been linked with reduced bodyweight of the newborn) or people with heart problems (excessive doses can cause extra beats of left ventricle).  Can cause physical dependence at daily dosages of 350mg and above (about 4 cups of coffee).  5 grams and above can be a lethal dose (about 60 cups of coffee).


            Some Personal Trainers will be horrified at the thought of encouraging clients to consume caffeine.  However, its effects on physical performance and bodyfat reduction are too great and well documented to ignore.  Used prudently, caffeine’s benefits can be made to outweigh possible risks.



            The most common beneficial finding of caffeine use is an increasing in burning of bodyfat as fuel (Costill et al 1978, IVY et al 1979).

            Compared with controls up to 100% more bodyfat is burned by the subjects using caffeine.

            Caffeine is a powerful lipolytic agent, promoting the breakdown of stored fats.  This leads to a dumping of fats (non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA’s) into the blood where they can then be taken up by skeletal muscle to be oxidized.

            Caffeine increases lipolysis by increasing blood adrenaline levels, and adrenaline is a potent internal lipolytic hormone (J. Appl Physiol 72:1297, 1992).            Adrenaline can activate lipolysis not only from fat cells but also from within fat cells (muscle triglycerides).

            When ingested with a meal, caffeine increases the rate at which the food is to be converted into usable energy.

            When caffeine is taken between meals, it causes fats to be transferred from deposits in the cells to the bloodstream.  Here, as free fatty acids they can be used as energy by most of the organs of the body.  (Gilbert 1992).

            A high protein, low carbohydrate, low fat diet works best with caffeine for maximum fat burning.  A high carbohydrate diet negates the fat-burning effects of caffeine (Weir J et al Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;  19:100-106)

            Caffeine also raises the activity levels of the body, which can mean that the energy derived from food is used up in exercise rather than be stored as fat.  In addition, caffeine stimulates the temperature-regulating centres of the body, which in turn produces an increase in body temperature.  To sustain this change, energy that might have otherwise been deposited as fat is used.  Thus, even when the body is at rest, a greater amount of food is burned.  (Caffeine:  The most popular stimulant, Gilbert 1992).

            Although caffeine achieves peak blood levels about an hour following oral ingestion, the fat burning response does not begin until 3-4 hours after ingestion.  (Weir J et al Med Sci Sports Exer 1987; 19:100-105  Belect S et al Metabolism 1968; 17:702-707).

            Most of the drug is removed from the body within 12 hours.  However, smoking causes the body to metabolize caffeine 50% faster, whereas other substances can substantially extend caffeine’s life.  Oral contraceptives can more than triple the half-life of caffeine.  I remember laughing lots of times when being told that eating grapefruits with coffee for breakfast would reduce fat.  But now we know it’s true.  The bitter compound which is contained in the grapefruit, known as Naringin, will extend caffeine’s life in your body, slowing the breakdown of the Xanthines in the liver (British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology).

            This enables a lower dose of caffeine to remain active and give the same effects as a higher dose whose duration of effect has not been extended.

            While we’re on the subject of increasing the effects of caffeine, are there any other substances that can be ‘stacked’ with caffeine?  Yes, there are.  Another legal one is Aspirin.  Like caffeine, aspirin is a methylzanthine.  Bodybuilders combine Caffeine, Aspirin and Ephedrine in a thermogenic cocktail.  Ephedrine is not legal without a prescription in Australia, nor is its herbal precursor Ma Huang or Ephedra herb which are classed S4 drugs.  They are on the International Olympic Committees list of banned substances.

            On its own, 1/2 an aspirin per day with one of your meals will help prevent the formation of gallstones which some people develop when dieting for weight loss (Dr David Powell 1997).

            The thermogenic cocktail of the three drugs promotes fat burning, increasing lean body mass while decreasing muscle breakdown (Dulloo Ag, Nutrition Review 1989; 5(1):7-9).  Aspirin taken under these conditions can also have a positive effect on workload capacity and anabolic drive.  Methylzanthines potentiate the ephedrine activity by increasing release of the hormone nor-epinephrine (Falk B et al Can. J Physcol Pharmacol 1990; 68:889-892).

            The ratio of caffeine to ephedrine is 10:1 (Int J Obesity 17: Suppl 1, 51-578, 1993) in combination with 300mg Aspirin.  (This combination is actually patented).  Prolonged daily use of Aspirin can blow ulcer holes in your gut.  Agents that work like Aspirin (prostaglandin blockade) may exert the same synergistic effect without the risk of finding blood in your stools.  Several plant derived compounds share aspirin’s actions, like curcumin from the spice tumeric and gingerols from ginger root.  

Click here to buy pure caffeine

For more information and facts on the other performance boosting effects of caffeine, click here


Scientific Name:            Naringin

Type of Nutrient:            Food

How Supplied:              Grapefruit powder (with peel)

Natural Source:            Grapefruits (including peel)

NOTE:                           Not Grape Juice (usually red) but Grapefruit Juice (green)

Used for:                       Thermogenic enhancer

                                       Xanthine extender

Legal status:                 OTC

Availability:                    Limited

Cost effectiveness:       * * * *

Safety:                           Excellent


            As mentioned earlier, the bitter compound which is contained in the grapefruit will extend caffeine’s life in your body, slowing the breakdown of the xanthines in the liver (British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology).

            This enables a lower dose of caffeine to remain active and give the same effects as a higher dose whose duration of effect has not been extended.

            One of caffeine’s most beneficial effects is its ability to increase lipolysis (fat burning) by increasing blood adrenaline levels, because adrenaline is a potent internal lipolytic hormone (J Appl Physiol 72:1297, 1992).

            Naringin is a flavonoid and may have anti ulcer effects.  Grapefruit juice contains 500 - 800 mg/litre naringin.



            200-300 ml Grapefruit juice (100-150 mg naringin) with 200-350mg caffeine.  Drink two more glasses of grapefruit juice over the day 4 hours apart.

            Caffeine dose will vary according to Bodyweight/Tolerance/Reason for use and Individual differences.

            The total calories and carbohydrates of grapefruit juice drinks must be taken into account when planning a fat loss program.  Using dried grapefruit peel can supply high concentrations of Naringin without many carbs or calories.





SUBJECT: Female 
Lifestyle: Sedentary - just started exercising
AGE:  25  4 coffees per day (320mg caff)
WEIGHT:   80kg 2500 calories per day  
BODYFAT: 30%  Typical High Fat, High Carb diet



First week:    Total abstinance of caffeine containing foods.

Reduced calorie, low fat, low carb, high protein diet.


Week Two: Upon awakening 250-350mg caffeine  
Drink 2 litres water 1 multi mineral 200ml Grapefruit juice  
throughout day   4 hrs later 200ml Grapefruit juice  
4 hrs later 200ml Grapefruit juice  
1 hr before weight training 250mg caffeine  
or 3 hrs before Aerobic training

Reduced calorie, low fat, low carb, high protein diet

Daily total not to exceed 500mg caffeine.


            TIP:            TOLERANCE EFFECT

                    If you have ingested caffeine containing foods and beverages in high amounts for a long time, your body may have developed a tolerance to the effects of caffeine.

                    If this is the case then slightly higher dosages may need to be taken.

                    Alternatively, and probably better, is to have a complete break from caffeine for a few weeks prior to its use.  This allows the body time to clear itself of the drug so that when it is taken in the future, a small amount has a greater effect.

                    To avoid or minimise the effects of tolerance, dosages should be kept as low as possible and used intermittently.

            ie.  don’t use caffeine every day and every fortnight of use should be followed by one week off.



Scientific Name:                    Garcinia Cambogia

Active Ingredient:                  Hydroxy Citric Acid (HCA)

Type of Nutrient:                    Fruit acid

History:                                   Thai and Indian cooking (condiment) for hundreds of years Ayurvedic medicine.  HCA isolated 1965

How supplied:                        Tablets, Capsules, Powder

Natural source:                      Brindleberry or Malabar Tamarind

Benefits:                                 Fat loss, (Accelerating fat burning, inhibiting the formation of new fat, Appetite suppression), cardiovascular health (lowers cholesterol)

Legal status:                          OTC

Availability:                             Health Food shops and Mail Order

Cost effectiveness:               * * * *

Safety:                                    Good

Precautions:                          Breast feeding women avoid.  Can dry up milk production (Dr D Powell 1997).  Diabetics avoid.


            HCA is a natural compound extracted from the rind of an exotic Asian fruit known as Garcinia Cambogia or Malabar Tamarind (commonly called Brindleberry in Australia).

            Scientific research has uncovered some powerful effects in the area of fat loss for this substance which has been used for centuries as a spice.

            These are:



            HCA acts as a lipogenic inhibitor meaning that it inhibits the production of fat in the body.  It has been demonstrated that this amazing extract has the ability to reduce fat production by 40-70% up to 12 hours after eating a meal.  It does this by attaching itself to a compound known as citrate lyase.  Citrate lyase is an enzyme necessary for the production of the building blocks of fat, Malonyl Coenzyme A.  By rendering citrate lyase inactive, Malonyl Coenzyme A cannot be made and so fat is not synthesized.



            Low levels of Malonyl Coenzyme A triggers another fat reducing reaction.  Put simply, when your body is not making fat it likes to burn fat.  The low level of Malonyl Coenzyme A activates the oxidation of fat in the liver and adipose tissues.  This accelerated fat burning (thermogenesis) is the most important effect of HCA for fat loss.



            Increased gluconeogenesis and larger glycogen stores in the liver seem to signal the brain that the body is full.  In addition, enhanced gluconeogenesis counter acts lowered blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and the hunger usually associated with it.  By controlling appetite, HCA reduces food intake and makes dieting easier.



            Metabolic energy is necessary in order to synthesize new glucose.  Thus, whenever gluconeogenesis is stimulated, metabolic rate increases (Flatt JP Biochem of Energy Expenditure, Bray GA, London 1978, pp 211-228).  This increases the expenditure of calories in the body.



            In a negative calorie balance, that is , when more calories are burned than ingested, stored fat and protein are oxidized to meet the body’s metabolic demands.  It is preferable that fat rather than protein be burned during this state.  But during dieting (restricted calorie intake) up to 30% of the weight reduction can come from muscle loss.  HCA stimulates fat burning while simultaneously retarding protein breakdown.  This minimizes the loss of muscle.  It does this because of its effect on ketone bodies - which slow the rate at which protein is broken down in skeletal muscle (Sherwin RS et al J Clin, Invest 1975, 55:1382-1390).  HCA accelerates the rate of ketone production.  The glucose formed from gluconeogenesis stimulates the secretion of Insulin.  Insulin is more anabolic than Testosterone and thus the breakdown of protein in the muscle tissue is inhibited (Sherwin RS et al J Clin Invest 1975 55:1382-1390).  By maintaining more muscle, as well as looking better, the body will burn more fat.  The greater the lean mass, the faster the metabolic rate and the less that calories have to be cut back.  This makes dieting easier.



            HCA reduces LDL (Berkhout TA et al, Biochem J 1990; 272:181-186) (the bad cholesterol) and triglycerides(Sullivan AC et al, Am J Clin Nutr 1977; 30: 777-784).  It is thought that this lowering of the production of both cholesterol and fatty acids is a result of HCA’s effects on the metabolism.



            Two substances that have both been demonstrated to enhance the fat burning effects of HCA are L-Carnitine and Chromium.

            L-Carnitine, a naturally occurring Amino Acid, becomes supercharged when paired with HCA, picking up fats and throwing them into the body’s furnace, where they are burned and used as energy.  L-Carnitine is essential in the transfer of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cells, (furnace part of cell).

            Chromium is a key mineral that “keeps insulin levels in check” by making the hormone more efficient at regulating blood sugar levels (US Dept of Agriculture).

            A number of clinical trials have been performed including an eight week double blind control study in 1991.  The people who took HCA in combination with Chromium lost an average of approximately 5 kg (11.1 pounds) per person(Anthony Conty, MD 1991 Hilton Head Study: Lipodex - 2).  This finding was confirmed by a 1993 trial (11.48 lbs)(Anthony Conty, MD 1993 Allendale Study: Lipotrol/Actotherm).


            Brindleberries are a natural food, being used in foods for hundreds of years.  Researchers have satisified themselves that HCA has no adverse side effects.  Since HCA does not act on the central nervous system, when it induces the body to lose weight, unwanted side effects including insomnia and depression do not occur.  However, a word of caution is in order.  The effects of HCA on diabetes have not yet been evaluated in clinical studies.  Until appropriate clinical trials have been conducted, however, I would advise diabetics, persons with high blood pressure, pregnant women, and others who have serious medical conditions to use this supplenment under a doctors supervision.


            The most cost effective is HCA in powder form.  However, since HCA does not dissolve easily and doesn’t have a pleasant taste, some people will prefer tablets or capsules.  One local Melbourne company has just developed a delicious fizzy lemon cordial version which contains a high dose of Brindleberry, and is only two calories per serve.

            The best way I know of to use HCA for fat loss is to take 250-500mg, three times daily, 30-60 minutes before meals.  However, recent research indicates that higher doses will increase the effects further.  Since HCA appears to be quite safe even at higher doses (500-1000mg), your budget may be the deciding factor.

            For the best result, because of the synergistic action of chromium and L-Carnitine upon HCA, I recommend taking 500-1000mg L-Carnitine and 200mcg Chromium with each dose of HCA.  Chromium Picolinate is the most effective form of Chromium.

            In summary, the fat burning “stack” looks like this:

250 mg HCA

            500 mg L-Carnitine

            200 mcg Chromium Picolinate

3 x per day, 1/2-1 hr before breakfast, lunch, dinner.



Scientific Name:                    Eiosapentanoic Acid (EPA)

                                                 Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA)

Type of Nutrient:                    Polyunsaturated fat

How Supplied:                      Capsules

Natural Source:                     Fish (oil)

Used for:                                Regulating insulin metabolism, anticatobolic, anabolic, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic (fat burning) , antilipogenic (stops fat production), blood cholesterol lowering, and vasodilating (increases vascularity) effects

Legal status:                          OTC

Availability:                             Health Food Shops

Cost effectiveness:                * * * *

Safety:                                    Excellent


            OMEGA-3’s contain an abundance of EPA and DHA.  These fatty acids serve as starter material for hormone-like compounds in the body that positively affect blood pressure, clotting, immune response and triglyceride levels.

            Probably of most interest to the bodybuilder is that these fatty substances actually aid in making less fat and breaking down more in the body and boosting anabolic drive.



            10 capsules a day of 1,000 milligrams of fish oil (10 g per day).

            Eating fish will give you a fair amount of OMEGA-3’s so you may cut back or cut out your supplemental dose.

            As well as making you leaner and more vascular OMEGA 3’s aid recovery and workload capacity.



Scientific Name:            L-Carnitine

Type of Nutrient:            Amino Acid

How Supplied:               Powder, Capsules,Tablet

Natural Source:             Meat (Beef, Mutton, Lamb)

Used for:                        Fat Loss, Energy

Legal status:                  OTC

Availability:                     Health food shops, gyms

Cost effectiveness:            *

Safety:                            Good.  NOTE: R-Carnitine - toxic

                                         D-Carnitine - toxic

                                         DL- Carnitine - toxic



            L-Carnitine, a naturally occurring Amino Acid, becomes supercharged when paired with HCA, picking up fats and throwing them into the body’s furnace, where they are burned and used as energy.  L-Carnitine is essential in the transfer of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cells (furnace part of cell).

            Fat can only be converted to energy if Carnitine is present.  If fat is more readily able to become energy through the presence of Carnitine then energy levels will also be improved and muscle sparing may be promoted.

            L-Carnitine may also stimulate the production of metabolic energy from other fuel sources such as adipose fat (around the waist), branch chain Amino Acids, pyruvate and very long fatty acids deposited around the body (Rubaltelli FF et al, Biol Neonate 1987;52 (suppl 1): 65-77).

            Carnitine is used by the liver to convert fatty acids into ketones.  Once present in the bloodstream, ketones will lower cortisol levels and reduce catabolism.  Red meat is the best natural source for Carnitine.

            Carnitine levels may also be increased in the body by the use of amino acids like Lysine and Methionine, since Carnitine can be synthesized from these aminos (plus Vitamin C, niacin, pyridoxine and iron).

            Carnitine supplementation is of no use to a sedentary person (unless there is a deficiency).  However, a hard training athlete is an entirely different animal and when combined with a low-calorie, low carbohydrate diet and HCA, L-carnitine is a very effective supplement.  Effective doses range between 500 mg - 5 grams per day.



            I recommend 500 mg three times per day for fat loss.  The higher doses (5 grams per day) have been found to increase Ketone production and increase the use of free fatty acids and fatty tissue in the body as an energy source.  This leads to a glycogen-saving effect that aids performance.

            You may wish to experiment by taking 2 grams one hour before exercise to experience the performance boosting aspect.  The intestine cannot absorb more than a 2 gram dose of L-Carnitine.  (Hultman et al, Eur J Appl Physiol 62:450, 1991) at one time.




Scientific Name:            Chromium Picolinate

Type of Nutrient:            Mineral

How Supplied:               Capsules

Natural Source:             Yeast, Liver

Used for:                        Increased Insulin efficiency

Legal status:                  Personal use only

Availability:                    Mail order, some health food shops, UTC (under the counter!)

Cost effectiveness:        * * *

Safety:                            Good



            Chromium deficiency is widespread in the general population (Anderson RA et al, Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41:1177-1183).  It is even worse amongst athletes, who may require up to twice as much as couch potatoes.



            Insulin exerts a powerful effect on both protein synthesis and the metabolizing of fats.  Chromium enables insulin to do its work.

            Without optimal chromium levels, insulin metabolism, muscle strength, supply and use of glycogen and fats as fuel, endurance, and your level of bodyfat, will all be sub-optimal.



            Although research on athletes has just begun, several studies have demonstrated significant improvements in muscle mass and decreases in bodyfat in double blind tests (Dr Muriel Gillman at Bemidgi State University.  Deborah Hasten at Louisiana State University).

            New animal studies provide further evidence of muscle-enhancing and fat-reducing effects of chromium picolinate.

            Chromium picolinate, compared to other forms of Chromium supplements such as Chromium nicotinate, chromium chloride or chromium polynicotinate seems to be the most active form of chromium on the market.



            An effective dose would be 200-250 mcg three times per day (600-750 mcg)


            eg        Breakfast      200 mcg

                        Lunch            200 mcg

                        Dinner           200 mcg


            You will recall Chromium picolinate is part of the HCA, L-CARNITINE FAT BURNING ‘STACK’.  The Chromium Picolinate I use is in 400 mcg capsules.  I pull the capsule apart and use half at a time.




Scientific Name:                      Panax Ginseng

Type of Nutrient:                      Plant

How Supplied:                        Powder, capsules, tablets, paste, tincture, tea

Natural Source:                      Root of plant

Used for:                                 Fat loss, endurance (stimulant) stress resistance, mental alertness, concentration, workload capacity

Legal status:                          OTC

Availability:                             Health Food Shops

Cost effectiveness:               * * *

Safety:                                   Good

            The active chemicals in Ginseng are around one dozen compounds known as ginsenosides.  Scientifically, they are termed triterpenod saponin glycosides.

            Although Chinese physicians have been the authority on medical use of Ginseng for over 4,000 years, they have never developed a methodology for its use with athletes - nor has anyone else.

            Recent scientific research has come up with some conflicting results.  This is largely due, especially with American studies, because the quality of the Ginseng used has not been analyzed.  Real Ginseng works - but some studies, the ones that failed to support this, did not test whether the substance they were testing had any active ingredients.  No active ingredients (ginsenosides), no active effects.

            RULE No 1 when choosing Ginseng - make sure you are buying good quality Ginseng high in ginsenosides.

            Ginseng is best known for its stimulant effects.  A lesser known but significant benefit is its ability to reduce stored bodyfat.  In a series of animal studies, Dr E.V. Avakian and colleagues have shown that ginseng increases oxidation of free fatty acids.




1.         Ginseng should be taken in courses of approximately 4 - 6 weeks duration with a break of the same duration between courses.


2.         500 mg twice per day (1 gram per day) is an effective dose.



            Highly energetic, nervous, tense, hysteric, manic or schizophrenic people should not take Ginseng.

            Ginseng abuse (habitual ingestion of 3 or more grams of Ginseng daily for long periods of time) can cause gynecomastia (bitch tits), high blood pressure, insomnia, irritability, nervousness, diarrhea, skin rashes, nausea and feelings of depression.

            In addition it has been shown to increase the potential for a catabolic (muscle break-down) response in the body.



Scientific Name:                     Cellulose, Hemicellulose, gum, mucilage, pectin, lignin

Type of Nutrient:                     Undigestable food

How Supplied:                       Food

Natural Source:                     Fruit, vegetables, bran, grains

Used for:                                Reduce bodyfat, stabilize blood sugar, regularity, holding down cholesterol and preventing colon cancer

Legal status:                           OTC

Availability:                             Supermarket, fruit, vegetable shops

Cost effectiveness:                 * * * * *

Safety:                                     Excellent


            Not really a supplement and not really a food, since it is that part of plant foods that the human system cannot digest.  However, I’ve included it because it can have a powerful effect on fat loss and many people neglect its importance.

            If you asked a dozen people what fibre does - the most common answer would be that it keeps your crapper in order.  This is correct, but it is not the only effect.

            For an athlete, or anyone wanting to lose fat, the effects of fibre on insulin metabolism are significant.  Fibre retards the digestion of sugars and fats so that less fast sugar and less high calorie fat enter the system (Wallace G, Fibre in Human and Animal Nutr, Wellington: Royal Soc of  NZ, 1983).

            High fibre diets (30-50 grams per day) create an environment in your body that supports the use of food for energy rather than storage as bodyfat.  Insulin levels remain stable and energy uptake is slow and stable.  One recently completed study gave a group of subjects over 8 weeks a low calorie, low fat diet.  Very little weight was lost.

            Then for another 8 weeks the subjects diets were supplemented with:

            Chromium Picolinate            400mcg

            L-Carnitine                             200 mg

            Fibre                                       20 grams

At the end of the second 8 week period, the average weight loss was 15.1 lbs of which 11.8 lbs was fat.  Fantastic!



            There are several categories of fibre and hundreds of different types.

            For best results get a good variety, ie  the soluble fibres like pectins in apples and carrots, the gummy fibre in oatbran and the insoluble celluloses in wheat bran and other grains.

            Eat between 30 and 50 grams per day as part of your meals,  eg 5-10 grams, 5-6 times per day.




Scientific Name:            Aminopolysaccharide

Type of  Nutrient:           Special Fibre (Lipophilic)

How Supplied:               Powder, Capsules

Natural Source:              Plankton and exoskeletons of  crustaceans

                                        (crabs, lobster, shrimp)

Used For:                      Weight loss agent, fibre, colon cleansing 

Legal Status:                OTC

Availability:                   Health food shops

Cost Effectiveness:      * * *

Safety:                          Appears safe if used in moderation


            Chitosan has been used for over 30 years by water purification plants to detoxify water.  It can absorb oil, grease and other toxic substances with great effectiveness.  Pharmaceutical grade Chitosan can absorb 10 to 12 times its weight in fat!  This is what makes it so effective as a weight loss agent.  It is a lipophilic fibre, meaning that it is chemically attracted to fat.  Most fibres are hydrophilic, which means they repel fat and attract water.

            By soaking up the dietary fats of your food, Chitosan helps to prevent the absorbtion of fats in the body and, at the same time, facilitate their elimination.  It binds the eaten fat into an indigestable ball which then passes out through the body (undigested), thus reducing the amount of fat calories to be stored or used.

            Although there are no known nasty side-effects of Chitosan, it is still a relatively new weight loss agent and more studies are required.

            Some people report constipation.  Another concern is that it might indiscriminately absorb other nutrients (such as fat soluble vitamins like E) and create dietary deficiencies.



            My recommendation is to use it only on an occasional basis such as for “binge busting”.  ie:  For the most part, follow a balanced, low fat diet but if you are inclined to have the odd “Belly Busting Mac Attack” or “Pizza Pigout”, 10 grams of Chitosan will theoretically absorb over 100 grams of fat (900 calories) and rescue you from the “Battle of the Bulge”.

            I do not think it wise to rely on its properties to compensate poor eating habits.

            Taking Chitosan too frequently may lead to a dietary deficiency of essential fatty acids.



Scientific name:            H2O

Type of Nutrient:            Drink - colourless, odourless, tasteless

History:                           Long

How Supplied:               Tap, Bottle

Natural Source:              Rain

Used For:                        Increasing efficiency of electro/chemical reactions in body

Cost Effectiveness:        * * * * *

Safety:                              Excellent when pure

Precautions:                    Preferably use filtered water to ensure purity



            Optimum hydration of the body on a cellular level will effect all mechanisms of ergogenics positively.



            Drink around 1 pure glass of water every waking hour.

            Drink more with exercise - before, during and after.